Article Title: Self-Esteem of the Repeaters: A Mixed Method Study of Elementary Grade Students
Author(s): Bushra Iqbal Chohan and Samina Amin Qadir
Institute(s): Faculty of Education, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Punjab.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2013, Vol. 28, No. 2, 277-296
Correspondence Address: Bushra Iqbal Chohan, Department of Education, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. E-mail: email@example.com
This mixed method study examines the impact of grade retention on the self-esteem of elementary grade students. For the quantitative part, 4th grade students (N = 305) from 42 public schools of Rawalpindi city were taken as the study sample. Initially, this sample was divided into two main groups, identified poor performers (n = 203) and the normal group of students (n = 102). After annual examinations, the former group was further divided in two subgroups on the basis of the result, Repeaters Sample (n = 117) and Identified Poor but Promoted Sample (n = 86). A two-phase panel study was designed to collect quantitative data. The self-esteem of the students was measured through Urdu translation of Beck Youth Inventory for Self-Concept of Children (Steer, Kumar, Beck, & Beck, 2005). For the qualitative aspect of the study, a group of 12 experienced primary school teachers teaching in public schools of Rawalpindi city were selected as the key informants. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with the participant teachers. The two sets of data were collected concurrently, whereas the triangulation of both types was carried out after the completion of the analysis stage. The overall findings of the study suggested that the impact of grade retention on the self-esteem of the repeaters was found to be considerably negative.
Keywords: Grade retention, self-esteem, universal primary education, elementary grade students