Article Title: Prevalence Of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Co-Morbid Depression In Earthquake Survivors In Nwfp, Pakistan: A Preliminary Study
Author(s): Unaiza Niaz, Sehar Hassan, Mehar Hassan, Haider Hussain, Shahnaz Ahad
Institute(s): The Psychiatric Clinic & Stress Research Center, 6C, 7th, Commercial Lane, Zamzama Boulevard, Phase V, D.H.A. Karachi,; Association of Children with Emotional and Learning Problems. (Senior Clinical Psychologist, IPTP) Social Sciences Social Worker and Counselor, The Kidney Foundation. (Couselor, IPTP).
Journal: Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society, 2006; 3(2): 98-101 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Objective: To obtain preliminary statistics of prevalence of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-morbid depression in earthquake survivors.
Design: Cross sectional survey.
Place & Duration of study: A total of 155 people were interviewed from earthquake hit areas. The sample includes (N=105) staff and students of Jinnah Commerce College Mansehra, and (N=50) earthquake relief camp survivors in NWFP of Pakistan. These survivors volunteered to be interviewed during IPTP team’s visit to these centers.
Subjects & Methods: PTSD and depression was assessed by Traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist (TSSC). Demographic information was obtained by a detailed Survivor Information Form (SIF). Descriptive statistics are used to present the results.
Results: The mean age of the respondents was 22 years (S.D. =8.5). 70% of them were males. 41% had high school education. 23% had lost their first degree relatives and 60% their second degree relatives, 55% reported loss of property. The rate of PTSD was 37% when the responses of the participants were evaluated on 17 PTSD items of scale. 23% suffered from PTSD and co-morbid depression. Proximity to epicenter, loss of family members, and damage to property were found to be associated with PTSD in survivors.
Conclusion: The rates of PTSD and depression in earthquake survivors are fairly significant. The earthquake survivors may require specialized intervention at some stage. Clearly, mental health issues of survivors of earthquake will require immediate and long-term follow-up. This would ensure adequate rehabilitation process.
Keywords: Post-traumatic stress disorder, Depression, Earthquake survivors, Risk factors.