Thesis Title: Anxiety, Depression and Stress in Smokers and Non Smokers
Author: Amna Maqsood
Supervisor: Iram Fatima
University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: email@example.com, Phone: 92-42-9231245
A correlational study was conducted to investigate the differences of anxiety, depression and psychological distress among active smokers, passive smokers, and non-smokers (M age = 20.8; SD = 1.8). It was hypothesized that psychological distress, anxiety and depression would be higher in active smokers as compared to passive smokers and non-smoker university students. Moreover, it was also hypothesized that psychological distress, anxiety and depression would be higher in passive smokers as compared to non-smoker university students. Cross sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of students (n = 75 each group) selected from public sector universities of Lahore using non-probability purposive convenience sampling technique. Male students of BS four years program were taken as a sample. In addition to demographic information sheet, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler, 1992) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale DASS 21 (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) were used to assess the differences of anxiety, depression and psychological distress among active passive smokers and non-smokers. The data was analyzed using MANCOVA. All the hypotheses were supported. This study will be helpful in the field of health psychology by making people understand the hazardous effects of passive smoking by highlighting differences among psychological distress, anxiety and depression in active, passive smokers and non-smokers.
Psychological distress, anxiety, depression, smokers.
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